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Man has imprinted his footsteps in the territory of Atzara since the Eneolithic. Not far from
the inhabited centre are some ‘domus de janas’. The subsequent civilization of tholoi has left a
few Giants’ Tombs and various nuraghi: the ‘Abbagadda’ (meaning ‘hot water’), to the south-west of
the country, still in a good state of conservation; also, ‘su Pisu’, ‘Figus’, ‘su Nuraghe’, ‘Ni’ e
Crobu’, ‘Ligios’ and ‘Sole‘e Mugadu’.
Dating from the Roman age are a number of potsherds of amphorae and vessels; their internal and external surface, of a light-red colour, was polished by means of a stick. The rural church of Santa Maria Bambina, instead, dates back to the year 1000 ca.; it is considered the most ancient Christian cult centre of the area.
The locality of Launisa is quite interesting from a historical point of view, owing to the traces of a medieval settlement found at about two kilometres from the village.
It has been historically proved that the village of Spasulè, in the surrounding countryside, must have been a rich borough, abandoned since the early decades of 1600. Part of its inhabitants went to settle down in Atzara. According to oral tradition, the original dwelling core of Atzara would coincide with a settlement located near the spring of Bingia ‘e Josso.
The first quarters were probably ‘Su Fruscu’ (where the oldest houses of the village, still existing, were built towards 1900) and ‘sa Montiga ‘e Josso’.
Atzara is mentioned in a few official documents referring to a time span between 1000 and 1470. The earlier significant news date back to 1205: indeed, Atzara, too, is mentioned in the Diplomatic Code of Relationships between the Holy See and Sardinia, in an act concerning the peace of 1388, signed between the ‘Giudicessa’ Eleonora d’Arborea and the King John of Aragon.